In 1884 he held his first exhibition at La Bodinière. In 1885, Théophile Steinlen drew the first of his famous posters: a poster for the Hotel de Paris in Trouville sur Mer. Posters for La Compagnie Francaise, the Cabaret Le Chat Noir and many others followed.
In 1911, Théophile Steinlen founded the paper "Les Humorists" together with Forain and Léandre and worked as a book illustrator. From 1893 he exhibited his works at the Salon des Indépendants and later regularly held exhibitions at the Salon des Humoristes. Politically opposed to the war, he drew numerous posters against World War I.
Théophile Steinlen died in 1923 in Paris and was laid to rest in the Cimetire Saint-Vincent in Montmartre.