art terms

  • Abstract Expressionism

    Abstract Expressionism developed in America in 1940s and 1950s. The name evokes their aim which was to make abstract art that was also expressive or emotional in its effect. They were inspired by the Surrealist idea that art should come from the unconscious mind. The Abstract Expressionists were mo....
    Abstract Expressionism developed in America in 1940s and 1950s. The name evokes their aim which was to make abstract art that was also expressive or emotional in its effect. They were inspired by the Surrealist idea that art should come from the unconscious mind. The Abstract Expressionists were mostly based in New York City, and also became known as the New York School.   Within Abstract Expressionism there are two broad groupings. The action painters led by Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning, and the colour-field painters, notably Mark Rothko, and Bret Newman. The action painters worked in a spontaneous improvisatory manner often using large brushes to make sweeping gestural marks. Pollock famously placed his canvas on the ground and danced around it pouring paint direct from the can or trailing it from the brush or a stick. In this way they directly placed their inner impulses on the canvas. The colour field painters were deeply interested in religion and myth. They created simple compositions with large areas of a single colour intended to produce a contemplative or meditational response in the viewer. The movement was enormously successful both critically and commercially. The result was such that New York came to replace Paris as the centre for contemporary art and the repercussions of this extraordinarily influential movement can still be felt years after its heyday. $test =
  • Action Art

    This term, first coined by Harold Rosenberg, refers to the dribbling, splashing or otherwise unconventional techniques of applying paint to a canvas. Connected to the Abstract Expressionist movement, but more precise in its meaning, Action Painting believes in the expressive power held in the actua....
    This term, first coined by Harold Rosenberg, refers to the dribbling, splashing or otherwise unconventional techniques of applying paint to a canvas. Connected to the Abstract Expressionist movement, but more precise in its meaning, Action Painting believes in the expressive power held in the actual act of painting as much as in the finished product. Rosenberg defined the notion of the canvas as seen by the artists in this movement as being 'not a picture but an event'.  Jackson Pollock was the leading figure of the movement, employing the 'drip' technique to create his vast paint splattered canvases. There is some debate as to how much he left to chance and how much the finished product reflected his original intentions, but the power of his works lies in their energy and sheer drama. Destroy Other artists produced Action Paintings often employing quite unconventional techniques. The British painter William Green, for example, rode a bicycle over his canvas, while one of the Gutai Group in Japan painted with his feet as he hung from a rope. Critics were divided over the worth and purpose of this movement as for every Pollock there were numerous examples of over-indulgence and derisive imitations. In retrospect, however, it stands as an important aspect of Abstract Expressionism and it can be seen as a precursor to many later techniques such as Spin Art. View all our Action Art prints $test =
  • Art Deco

    Art Deco began in Europe particularly Paris in the early years of the 20th century, but didn’t really take hold until after World War I. It was popular both in Europe and the US until the outbreak of World War II.  View all our Art Deco prints Its style was influenced by the changing ....
    Art Deco began in Europe particularly Paris in the early years of the 20th century, but didn’t really take hold until after World War I. It was popular both in Europe and the US until the outbreak of World War II.  View all our Art Deco prints Its style was influenced by the changing times, with the increase in travel it took inspiration from both the places people were travelling too e.g. Egypt and Africa as well as the transport, planes, curse liners and cars. Despite using lots of industrial images and geometric lines Art Deco also oozes a sense of glamour. Destroy Art Deco takes its name from The International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts held in Paris in 1925. The Art Deco look was spread through all forms of art and design. It was influenced by and influenced modern architecture, in particular the Bauhaus and architects such as Le Corbusier and Miles van de Rohe.  Tamara De Lempicka is probably the best known Art Deco artist and her works captured everything that was Art Deco. However she was so much a part of this style that as Art Deco fell out of favour so did her work. Art Deco is now an iconic style with continuing appeal. $test =
  • Art Nouveau

    Art Nouveau is characterised by an elaborate ornamental style with sinuous linearity and flowing organic shapes based on plant forms. It can be seen most effectively in the decorative arts, for example interior design, glasswork and jewellery. However, it was also seen in posters and illustration a....
    Art Nouveau is characterised by an elaborate ornamental style with sinuous linearity and flowing organic shapes based on plant forms. It can be seen most effectively in the decorative arts, for example interior design, glasswork and jewellery. However, it was also seen in posters and illustration as well as certain paintings and sculptures of the period. The movement took its name from La Maison de l'Art Nouveau in Paris, a shop keen to promote modern ideas in art. It was influenced by the Symbolists most obviously in their shared preference for exotic detail, as well as by Celtic and Japanese art. It was brought to a wider audience in 1900 with the Exposition Universelle in Paris. Art Nouveau style is exemplified in the Paris Metro station entrances by Guimard, Tiffany glass, Mackintosh chairs and his Glasgow School of Art, and book designs of Beardsley, Charles Ricketts and followers such as Arthur Rackham. Other exponents of Art Nouveau include Gustav Klimt, Antonio Gaudí and René Lalique. Art Nouveau was highly successful all around the world, until it was killed off by the First World War. $test =
  • Artist Proof

    An artists proof is part of a limited edition run of prints. Normally low in number they can be marked either just AP or AP/7 and can be signed or unsigned. These prints are produced before the limited edition run as test prints and are used by the artists to ensure the print is just how they want i....
    An artists proof is part of a limited edition run of prints. Normally low in number they can be marked either just AP or AP/7 and can be signed or unsigned. These prints are produced before the limited edition run as test prints and are used by the artists to ensure the print is just how they want it so they may vary slightly from the limited edition run. Artist proofs are often seen as more valuable as they are fewer in number and can be more unquie. $test =
  • Bauhaus

    A school of art, design and architecture founded in Germany in 1919. Bauhaus style is characterized by its severely economic, geometric design and by its respect for materials. The Bauhaus school was created when Walter Gropius was appointed head of two art schools in Weimar and united them in one....
    A school of art, design and architecture founded in Germany in 1919. Bauhaus style is characterized by its severely economic, geometric design and by its respect for materials. The Bauhaus school was created when Walter Gropius was appointed head of two art schools in Weimar and united them in one. He coined the term Bauhaus as an inversion of 'Hausbau' - house construction. Teaching at the school concentrated on functional craftsmanship and students were encouraged to design with mass-produced goods in mind. Enormously controversial and unpopular with right wingers in Weimar, the school moved in 1925 to Dessau. The Bauhaus moved again to Berlin in 1932 and was closed by the Nazis in 1933. The school had some illustrious names among it's teachers, including Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Wassily Kandinsky, Lászlo Moholy-Nagy and Marcel Breuer. Its influence in design of architecture, furniture, typography and weaving has lasted to this day - the look of the modern environment is almost unthinkable without it. View all our Bauhaus prints   $test =
  • Calligram

    A calligram is a word or piece of text in which the design and layout of the letters creates a visual image related to the meaning of the words themselves. The typeface, calligraphy or handwriting is arranged to visually express the meaning or theme of the text. A calligram is thus a combination....
    A calligram is a word or piece of text in which the design and layout of the letters creates a visual image related to the meaning of the words themselves. The typeface, calligraphy or handwriting is arranged to visually express the meaning or theme of the text. A calligram is thus a combination of poetry and visual art. Calligrams can be found in many cultures and civilizations throughout history,. This form of art is particularly revered in the Islamic world. In Islam, visually representing divinity is forbidden, so calligrams are used to adorn religious and sacred texts. One of the most famous examples of a calligram is encompassed within the work of French poet Guillaume Appolinaire. He was a famous calligram writer and the author of a book of poems called ‘Calligrammes’. His Modernist masterpiece poem written in the form of the Eiffel Tower is arguably the most famous example of a calligram. Several contemporary artists at artrepublic are exploring and employing calligrams. Screen Prince creates portraits of famous musicians from the lyrics of their iconic songs. The lyrics are cleverly designed to visually bring his subjects to life. Mike Edwards is also a pioneer of Typographic art, using calligrams to create ‘readable’ visual portraits.   $test =
  • Classicism

    This is a movement that can be defined by its attention to traditional forms concentrating on elegance and symmetry. It takes the art of the Greeks and Romans as its idea of perfection. Developing in Rome in the late 15th century, the classical style was widespread particularly among the Renaissan....
    This is a movement that can be defined by its attention to traditional forms concentrating on elegance and symmetry. It takes the art of the Greeks and Romans as its idea of perfection. Developing in Rome in the late 15th century, the classical style was widespread particularly among the Renaissance artists. Their aim was to capture the precision of the antique age which for them represented the possibility of attaining absolute beauty in their art. Using examples such as the 'Belvedere Torso' and the 'Medici Venus', the artists rejected emotionalism in favour of attention to form and detail. The style's main exponents included Michelangelo, Raphael, Correggio and Mantegna. The classical style was revived in the late 18th and early 19th century in Neoclassicism a movement that arose in reaction to the flamboyant Rococo style and which included artists such as Anton Raffael Mengs and Johan Joachim Winckelman. $test =
  • Contemporary

    Contemporary art refers not to any specific art movement or era, but simply to art created in the recent past. It is a loose and sometimes misleading term: museums tend to define 'contemporary' as post-1945, while some critics see it as simply covering the last decade.  Destroy ....
    Contemporary art refers not to any specific art movement or era, but simply to art created in the recent past. It is a loose and sometimes misleading term: museums tend to define 'contemporary' as post-1945, while some critics see it as simply covering the last decade.  Destroy View all our Contemporary prints $test =
  • Cubism

    The Cubist art movement began in Paris around 1907 with Picasso’s ground breaking painting Demoiselles D'Avignon and the works of Georges Braque. They rebelled against established ways of painting and represented three-dimensional subjects from several different points of view simultaneously so ....
    The Cubist art movement began in Paris around 1907 with Picasso’s ground breaking painting Demoiselles D'Avignon and the works of Georges Braque. They rebelled against established ways of painting and represented three-dimensional subjects from several different points of view simultaneously so they became fragmented and redefined. Other major exponents of Cubism included Robert Delaunay, Francis Picabia, Jean Metzinger, Marcel Duchamp and Fernand Leger. Cubism can bee seen evolving in the late work of Cézanne in which he painted sill lives from slightly different points of view. Picasso and many artists of the time were also influenced by African tribal masks which are highly stylised, but nevertheless present a vivid human image. The object in these paintings became increasingly fragmented and the paintings themselves became increasingly abstract. Cubism was the starting point for much abstract art including Constructivism and Neo-Plasticism. It also however, opened up almost infinite new possibilities for the treatment of reality in art, including the used of everyday objects in paintings and sculpture. $test =

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